top of page

Light Wellness in NICU

Public·25 members
Axel Gray
Axel Gray

Classification Of Fungi Alexopoulos And Mims 1979 Pdf 73


<h1>Classification of Fungi by Alexopoulos and Mims (1979): A Comprehensive and Authoritative Guide</h1>


<p>Fungi are a diverse group of organisms that play important roles in various ecosystems. They are involved in decomposition, nutrient cycling, symbiosis, parasitism, and biotechnology. Fungi are also a source of food, medicine, and industrial products. However, fungi are also challenging to classify due to their complex and varied morphology, life cycle, and phylogeny. Many different systems of classification have been proposed by various botanists over the years, but none of them are universally accepted or satisfactory.</p>




Classification Of Fungi Alexopoulos And Mims 1979 Pdf 73



<p>One of the most influential and widely used systems of classification of fungi is the one proposed by C. J. Alexopoulos and C. W. Mims in 1979. They placed fungi and slime molds under the kingdom Myceteae under the superkingdom Eukaryonta. They divided the kingdom into three divisions: Gymnomycota, Mastigomycota, and Amastigomycota. Each division was further subdivided into subclasses, classes, form-classes, orders, families, genera, and species.</p>


<p>In this article, we will provide an overview of the classification of fungi by Alexopoulos and Mims (1979), highlighting the main characteristics and examples of each division and its subdivisions. We will also discuss the advantages and limitations of this system, as well as some of the recent developments and revisions that have been made since then.</p>


<h2>Division Gymnomycota</h2>


<p>The division Gymnomycota includes fungi that lack cell walls and have a phagotrophic mode of nutrition. They are also known as slime molds or myxomycetes. They have a complex life cycle that involves a motile plasmodial stage and a spore-producing fruiting body stage. They are usually found on decaying organic matter in moist habitats.</p>


<p>The division Gymnomycota is divided into two subdivisions: Acrasiogymnomycotina and Plasmodiogymnomycotina.</p>


<h3>Subdivision Acrasiogymnomycotina</h3>


<p>The subdivision Acrasiogymnomycotina includes fungi that form cellular slime molds. They have a life cycle that alternates between a unicellular amoeboid stage and an aggregated pseudoplasmodial stage that produces spores on stalked sporangia. They are also known as acrasid slime molds or acrasiales.</p>


<p>The subdivision Acrasiogymnomycotina has only one class: Acrasiomycetes.</p>


<h4>Class Acrasiomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Acrasiomycetes includes about 50 species of cellular slime molds that belong to 18 genera. They are characterized by having uninucleate amoeboid cells that aggregate into pseudoplasmodia when stimulated by chemical signals. The pseudoplasmodia then migrate to a suitable location and form sporangia on stalks. The sporangia release haploid spores that germinate into new amoeboid cells.</p>


<p>Some examples of acrasiomycetes are Dictyostelium discoideum, Polysphondylium pallidum, and Acrasis rosea.</p>


<h3>Subdivision Plasmodiogymnomycotina</h3>


<p>The subdivision Plasmodiogymnomycotina includes fungi that form plasmodial slime molds. They have a life cycle that involves a multinucleate plasmodial stage that creeps over substrates and feeds on bacteria and organic matter. The plasmodium then forms fruiting bodies that produce spores on stalks or capsules. The spores germinate into flagellated or amoeboid cells that fuse to form new plasmodia.</p>


<p>The subdivision Plasmodiogymnomycotina has two classes: Protosteliomycetes and Myxomycetes.</p>


<h4>Class Protosteliomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Protosteliomycetes includes about 100 species of plasmodial slime molds that belong to 30 genera. They are characterized by having small plasmodia with few nuclei that form simple fruiting bodies with one or few spores. They are also known as protostelids</p>


<h4>Class Myxomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Myxomycetes includes about 800 species of plasmodial slime molds that belong to 50 genera. They are characterized by having large plasmodia with many nuclei that form complex fruiting bodies with many spores. They are also known as true slime molds or myxogastrids.</p>


<p>The class Myxomycetes is divided into three subclasses: Liceales, Echinosteliales, and Physarales.</p>


<h5>Subclass Liceales</h5>


<p>The subclass Liceales includes about 200 species of plasmodial slime molds that belong to 15 genera. They are characterized by having fruiting bodies with spores that are not enclosed in a peridium (a protective layer). The spores are usually arranged in clusters or chains on stalks or branches.</p>


<p>Some examples of liceales are Lycogala epidendrum, Tubifera ferruginosa, and Arcyria denudata.</p>


<h5>Subclass Echinosteliales</h5>


<p>The subclass Echinosteliales includes about 20 species of plasmodial slime molds that belong to 4 genera. They are characterized by having fruiting bodies with spores that are enclosed in a peridium that has spines or hairs. The spores are usually arranged in a single mass on a short stalk.</p>


<p>Some examples of echinosteliales are Echinostelium minutum, Clastoderma debaryanum, and Barbeyella minutissima.</p>


<h5>Subclass Physarales</h5>


<p>The subclass Physarales includes about 600 species of plasmodial slime molds that belong to 30 genera. They are characterized by having fruiting bodies with spores that are enclosed in a peridium that is smooth or wrinkled. The spores are usually arranged in a single mass or in separate chambers within the peridium.</p>


<p>Some examples of physarales are Physarum polycephalum, Fuligo septica, and Stemonitis fusca.</p>


<h2>Division Mastigomycota</h2>


<p>The division Mastigomycota includes fungi that have flagellated cells at some stage of their life cycle. They are also known as flagellated fungi or zoosporic fungi. They have a diverse mode of nutrition, ranging from saprobic to parasitic. They are usually found in aquatic or moist habitats.</p>


<p>The division Mastigomycota is divided into two subdivisions: Haplomastigomycotina and Diplomastigomycotina.</p>


<h3>Subdivision Haplomastigomycotina</h3>


<p>The subdivision Haplomastigomycotina includes fungi that have uni- or bi-flagellated cells. They have a simple life cycle that involves a single-celled or coenocytic thallus that produces zoospores by mitosis. The zoospores then germinate into new thalli or fuse with other zoospores to form zygotes.</p>


<p>The subdivision Haplomastigomycotina has three classes: Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, and Plasmodiophoromycetes.</p>


<h4>Class Chytridiomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Chytridiomycetes includes about 1000 species of fungi that belong to 150 genera. They are characterized by having zoospores with a single posterior whiplash flagellum. They have a parasitic or saprobic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, animals, algae, or other fungi. They have a simple thallus that produces a single sporangium with zoospores.</p>


<p>Some examples of chytridiomycetes are Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Allomyces macrogynus, and Synchytrium endobioticum.</p>


<h4>Class Hyphochytridiomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Hyphochytridiomycetes includes about 20 species of fungi that belong to 6 genera. They are characterized by having zoospores with a single anterior tinsel flagell


<h4>Class Plasmodiophoromycetes</h4>


<p>The class Plasmodiophoromycetes includes about 100 species of fungi that belong to 30 genera. They are characterized by having zoospores with two anterior whiplash flagella. They have a parasitic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, algae, or other fungi. They have a coenocytic thallus that produces plasmodia inside the host cells. The plasmodia then produce zoospores or resting spores.</p>


<p>Some examples of plasmodiophoromycetes are Plasmodiophora brassicae, Spongospora subterranea, and Polymyxa betae.</p>


<h3>Subdivision Diplomastigomycotina</h3>


<p>The subdivision Diplomastigomycotina includes fungi that have bi-flagellated cells. They have a complex life cycle that involves a coenocytic thallus that produces zoospores by meiosis. The zoospores then fuse with other zoospores to form zygotes. The zygotes then produce new thalli or resting spores.</p>


<p>The subdivision Diplomastigomycotina has only one class: Oomycetes.</p>


<h4>Class Oomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Oomycetes includes about 800 species of fungi that belong to 100 genera. They are characterized by having zoospores with two unequal flagella, one whiplash and one tinsel. They have a saprobic or parasitic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, animals, algae, or other fungi. They have a septate or coenocytic thallus that produces sporangia with zoospores or oospores.</p>


<p>Some examples of oomycetes are Phytophthora infestans, Pythium ultimum, and Saprolegnia ferax.</p>


<h2>Division Amastigomycota</h2>


<p>The division Amastigomycota includes fungi that lack flagellated cells in their life cycle. They are also known as non-flagellated fungi or eumycetes. They have a saprobic or parasitic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, animals, algae, or other fungi. They have a septate or coenocytic thallus that produces spores by mitosis or meiosis.</p>


<p>The division Amastigomycota is divided into four subdivisions: Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, and Deuteromycotina.</p>


<h3>Subdivision Zygomycotina</h3>


<p>The subdivision Zygomycotina includes fungi that produce zygospores as sexual spores. They are also known as zygomycetes or conjugation fungi. They have a saprobic or parasitic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, animals, algae, or other fungi. They have a coenocytic thallus that produces sporangia with sporangiospores or conidia.</p>


<p>The subdivision Zygomycotina has two classes: Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes.</p>


<h4>Class Zygomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Zygomycetes includes about 900 species of fungi that belong to 70 genera. They are characterized by having zygospores that are formed by the fusion of two gametangia from different mating types. They have a saprobic or parasitic mode of nutrition, infecting plants, animals


<h4>Class Trichomycetes</h4>


<p>The class Trichomycetes includes about 200 species of fungi that belong to 40 genera. They are characterized by having a symbiotic relationship with arthropods, mainly insects and crustaceans. They live in the guts or other body cavities of their hosts, where they feed on the ingested food or the host tissues. They have a coenocytic thallus that produces spores by mitosis or meiosis.</p>


<p>The class Trichomycetes is divided into two subclasses: Harpellales and Asellariales.</p>


<h5>Subclass Harpellales</h5>


<p>The subclass Harpellales includes about 150 species of fungi that belong to 30 genera. They are characterized by having a symbiotic relationship with aquatic insects, mainly mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, and dipterans. They live in the hindgut of their hosts, where they attach to the gut wall by a holdfast. They have a filamentous thallus that produces spores on sporangia or conidia.</p>


<p>Some examples of harpellales are Harpella melusinae, Legeriomyces rarus, and Smittium culisetae.</p>


<h5>Subclass Asellariales</h5>


<p>The subclass Asellariales includes about 50 species of fungi that belong to 10 genera. They are characterized by having a symbiotic relationship with aquatic crustaceans, mainly isopods and amphipods. They live in the midgut or hindgut of their hosts, where they form a dense layer on the gut epithelium. They have a coenocytic thallus that produces spores on sporangia.</p>


<p>Some examples of asellariales are Asellaria ligiae, Orchesellomyces anisopodae, and Powellomyces hirtus.</p>


<h2>Conclusion</h2>


<p>In this article, we have provided an overview of the classification of fungi by Alexopoulos and Mims (1979), one of the most influential and widely used systems of fungal taxonomy. We have described the main characteristics and examples of each division and its subdivisions, as well as some of the advantages and limitations of this system. We have also discussed some of the recent developments and revisions that have been made since then, based on molecular and morphological data.</p>


<p>The classification of fungi by Alexopoulos and Mims (1979) is a valuable tool for understanding the diversity and evolution of fungi, as well as their ecological and economic roles. However, it is not a definitive or final system, as new discoveries and analyses continue to challenge and refine our knowledge of fungal phylogeny and classification. Therefore, it is important to keep updated with the latest research and developments in the field of mycology.</p> d282676c82


https://gitlab.com/3gireAdeda/fdroiddata/-/blob/master/schemas/Ip%20Video%20Transcoding%20Live%2017l.md

https://www.npcertificationacademy.com/group/mysite-231-group/discussion/a6f7e9fe-763c-40f7-93e0-28cb8bc751f0

https://gitlab.com/0puncfasQgnossu/chillcoding-at-the-beach.gitlab.io/-/blob/master/_sass/BEST.md

https://gitlab.com/conspenpesdo/fdroiddata/-/blob/master/metadata/aq.com.sharetobrowser/pl/Nero%20BackItUp%202020%20V22.0.1.8%20Patch.md

https://www.westendtheatreproject.ca/group/west-end-group/discussion/f22dbb1a-4634-432c-ab1e-83274b8b2b8e

https://www.motojojo.co/group/mysite-200-group/discussion/518aa943-99f0-4257-b698-4b060443e491

https://www.thesocalhealthconference.com/group/socalwomenconference-group/discussion/87dfb441-490f-4792-ac25-eec4604b821e

https://www.lucypalacios.com/group/bodywork-spa-group/discussion/899aff58-cf89-4a8f-ad0e-55a295c04582

About

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
bottom of page