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Logan Adams
Logan Adams

Computing Essentials 2017: A Comprehensive Introduction to IT


Computing Essentials 2017: A Guide to Information Technology




Information technology (IT) is the use of computers, software, networks, and other digital devices to create, store, process, communicate, and distribute information. IT has become an essential part of our personal and professional lives, enabling us to perform various tasks more efficiently, effectively, and creatively. IT also has a significant impact on our society, culture, economy, and environment.




Computing Essentials 2017 (CIT) downloads 34



But how do we learn about the most important, essential, and current concepts of IT? How do we make IT work for us? One way is to read Computing Essentials 2017, a book that presents the effect of IT on people, privacy, ethics, and our environment. This book also provides current examples, references, and exercises that allow students to be successful in understanding today's role of computer information technology.


This article will give you an overview of the main topics covered in Computing Essentials 2017, which are organized into three chapters: The Components of a Computer System, The Internet and the World Wide Web, and Application Software: Tools for Productivity and Creativity. By reading this article, you will gain a basic understanding of IT and its applications in various domains.


Chapter 1: The Components of a Computer System




A computer system is a collection of hardware and software that work together to perform specific tasks. Hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer, such as the keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, hard disk, CPU, etc. Software refers to the programs that run on a computer, such as the operating system, word processor, web browser, game, etc.


Hardware: The Physical Parts of a Computer




Hardware can be classified into four categories: input devices, output devices, storage devices, and processing devices.


Input Devices




Input devices are hardware components that allow us to enter data or instructions into a computer. Some common input devices are:



  • Keyboard: A device that allows us to type text or numbers using keys.



  • Mouse: A device that allows us to point and click on objects on the screen using a small ball or an optical sensor.



  • Scanner: A device that allows us to capture images or text from paper documents or other sources using light.



  • Microphone: A device that allows us to record sound or voice using sound waves.



  • Webcam: A device that allows us to capture video or images using a small camera.



Output Devices




Output devices are hardware components that allow us to see, hear, or print the results of processing data or instructions by a computer. Some common output devices are:



  • Monitor: A device that displays text, images, or video on a screen using pixels.



  • Printer: A device that prints text, images, or graphics on paper or other media using ink or toner.



  • Speaker: A device that produces sound or music using electrical signals.



  • Headphone: A device that delivers sound or music to our ears using speakers.



  • Projector: A device that projects text, images, or video on a large screen or wall using light.



Storage Devices




Storage devices are hardware components that allow us to store data or instructions permanently or temporarily on a computer. Some common storage devices are:



  • Hard Disk: A device that stores data or instructions on a magnetic disk using read/write heads.



  • Flash Drive: A device that stores data or instructions on a flash memory chip using electrical signals.



  • Optical Disc: A device that stores data or instructions on a plastic disc using laser beams.



  • Cloud Storage: A service that stores data or instructions on remote servers using the Internet.



Processing Devices




Processing devices are hardware components that perform calculations, comparisons, and other operations on data or instructions. The most important processing device is the central processing unit (CPU), which is the brain of a computer. The CPU consists of two parts: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which coordinates the activities of other components. The CPU also has a small amount of memory called the cache, which stores frequently used data or instructions for faster access. Another important processing device is the random access memory (RAM), which is the main memory of a computer. RAM stores data or instructions temporarily while they are being processed by the CPU.


Software: The Programs that Run on a Computer




Software can be classified into two categories: system software and application software.


System Software




System software is the software that controls the basic operations of a computer system, such as booting up, managing files, communicating with other devices, etc. The most important system software is the operating system (OS), which is the software that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. The OS also provides a user interface (UI), which is the software that allows us to interact with a computer using graphical elements, such as icons, menus, windows, etc. Some common operating systems are Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, iOS, etc.


Application Software




Application software is the software that performs specific tasks for users, such as creating documents, browsing the web, playing games, etc. Application software can be classified into two types: general-purpose software and specialized software. General-purpose software is the software that can be used for various purposes by different users, such as word processors, spreadsheets, presentation software, etc. Specialized software is the software that can be used for specific purposes by specific users, such as accounting software, graphic design software, video editing software, etc.


Chapter 2: The Internet and the World Wide Web




The Internet and the World Wide Web are two related but distinct concepts in IT. The Internet is a network of networks that connects millions of computers and devices around the world using standardized protocols. The World Wide Web is a collection of web pages that are stored on web servers and accessed through web browsers using the Internet.


The Internet: A Network of Networks




The Internet is a global network of networks that connects millions of computers and devices around the world using standardized protocols. A protocol is a set of rules that defines how data is transmitted and received over a network. The most important protocol on the Internet is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), which defines how data is divided into packets, addressed, routed, and reassembled over different networks. The Internet also uses other protocols for different purposes, such as HTTP for web pages, SMTP for email messages, FTP for file transfers, etc.


How the Internet Works




Web Browsers and Web Servers




Web browsers and web servers are two types of software that enable the communication and exchange of web pages over the Internet. A web browser is an application program that displays a web page and allows us to interact with it using graphical elements, such as links, buttons, forms, etc. A web browser also requests web pages from web servers using HTTP. Some common web browsers are Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Microsoft Edge, Apple Safari, etc.


A web server is a program or a computer that provides services to web browsers by storing, processing, and delivering web pages. A web server also responds to web browser requests using HTTP. A web server can host one or more websites, each with its own domain name and IP address. Some common web servers are Apache, Nginx, IIS, etc.


Web Pages and Web Sites




Web pages and web sites are two related but distinct concepts in the World Wide Web. A web page is a document that contains text, images, videos, audio, or other multimedia content that can be displayed in a web browser. A web page can also contain hyperlinks that connect it to other web pages. A web page is identified by a unique URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which specifies its location on a web server.


A website is a collection of related web pages that are grouped together under a common domain name and hosted on one or more web servers. A website usually has a homepage, which is the first or main web page that visitors see when they access the website. A website can also have subpages, which are web pages that are linked to the homepage or other subpages. A website can have a specific purpose or theme, such as providing information, entertainment, education, commerce, etc.


Chapter 3: Application Software: Tools for Productivity and Creativity




Application software is the software that performs specific tasks for users, such as creating documents, browsing the web, playing games, etc. Application software can be classified into two types: productivity software and creativity software.


Productivity Software: Programs that Help You Work Efficiently




Productivity software is the software that helps you work efficiently by organizing, processing, and presenting information in various formats. Some common productivity software are:


Word Processing Software




Word processing software is the software that allows you to create, edit, format, and print text documents, such as letters, reports, resumes, etc. Word processing software also provides features such as spell check, grammar check, word count, tables, charts, etc. Some common word processing software are Microsoft Word, Google Docs, LibreOffice Writer, etc.


Spreadsheet Software




Spreadsheet Software




Spreadsheet software is the software that allows you to create, edit, format, and analyze data in a tabular format, such as budgets, invoices, schedules, etc. Spreadsheet software also provides features such as formulas, functions, charts, graphs, pivot tables, etc. Some common spreadsheet software are Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, LibreOffice Calc, etc.


Presentation Software




Presentation software is the software that allows you to create, edit, and deliver slideshows that combine text, images, audio, video, or other multimedia content. Presentation software also provides features such as transitions, animations, templates, themes, etc. Some common presentation software are Microsoft PowerPoint, Google Slides, LibreOffice Impress, etc.


Database Software




Database software is the software that allows you to create, manage, and query collections of structured data, such as customer records, product inventory, employee information, etc. Database software also provides features such as tables, fields, records, queries, forms, reports, etc. Some common database software are Microsoft Access, MySQL, Oracle Database, etc.


Creativity Software: Programs that Help You Express Your Ideas




Creativity software is the software that helps you express your ideas by creating or editing digital content in various forms. Some common creativity software are:


Graphics Software




Graphics Software




Graphics software is the software that allows you to create or edit images or drawings using pixels or vectors. Pixels are tiny dots of color that make up a raster image, such as a photo or a screenshot. Vectors are mathematical shapes that make up a vector image, such as a logo or an icon. Graphics software also provides features such as layers, filters, effects, shapes, colors, etc. Some common graphics software are Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, CorelDraw, GIMP, etc.


Audio Software




Audio software is the software that allows you to create or edit sound or music using digital audio signals. Audio software also provides features such as recording, mixing, editing, effects, filters, synthesizers, etc. Some common audio software are Audacity, GarageBand, FL Studio, Ableton Live, etc.


Video Software




Video software is the software that allows you to create or edit video or animation using digital video signals. Video software also provides features such as cutting, trimming, cropping, merging, transitions, effects, filters, titles, subtitles, etc. Some common video software are Adobe Premiere Pro, Final Cut Pro X, iMovie, DaVinci Resolve, etc.


Web Authoring Software




Web Authoring Software




Web authoring software is the software that allows you to create or edit web pages or websites using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), JavaScript (a scripting language), and other web technologies. Web authoring software also provides features such as templates, themes, widgets, plugins, etc. Some common web authoring software are Adobe Dreamweaver, WordPress, Wix, Squarespace, etc.


Web authoring software can be classified into two types: HTML editors and web-page builders. HTML editors are programs that allow you to write and edit HTML code directly. They usually have features such as syntax highlighting, code completion, code validation, etc. Web-page builders are programs that allow you to create and edit web pages using a graphical user interface (GUI). They usually have features such as drag-and-drop, preview, publishing, etc.


Conclusion




In this article, we have given you an overview of the main topics covered in Computing Essentials 2017, a book that presents the effect of IT on people, privacy, ethics, and our environment. We have also introduced you to some of the best graphic design software that you can use to create stunning visuals for print, web, and apps.


We hope that this article has helped you gain a basic understanding of IT and its applications in various domains. If you want to learn more about IT and graphic design software, we recommend you to read Computing Essentials 2017 and try out some of the software mentioned in this article.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about IT and graphic design software:


What is the difference between IT and computer science?




IT and computer science are two related but distinct fields of study. IT focuses on the use and application of computers and software to solve problems and achieve goals. Computer science focuses on the theory and design of computers and software to perform computations and operations.


What are some of the benefits of using graphic design software?




Some of the benefits of using graphic design software are:



  • You can create professional-looking graphics without any drawing skills or artistic talent.



  • You can save time and money by using ready-made templates and assets.



  • You can easily edit and modify your graphics according to your needs and preferences.



  • You can share your graphics with others online or offline in various formats.



  • You can express your creativity and ideas in a visual way.



What are some of the challenges of using graphic design software?




Some of the challenges of using graphic design software are:



  • You may need to learn how to use different tools and features of the software.



  • You may need to update your software regularly to keep up with the latest trends and standards.



  • You may need to deal with compatibility issues with different devices and platforms.



  • You may need to protect your graphics from plagiarism or unauthorized use.



  • You may need to balance your creativity and originality with your audience's expectations and preferences.



What are some of the best resources for learning IT and graphic design software?




Some of the best resources for learning IT and graphic design software are:



  • Computing Essentials 2017: A book that covers the most important, essential, and current concepts of IT.



  • Adobe Creative Cloud: A suite of graphic design software that includes Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, XD, etc.



  • Lynda.com: An online learning platform that offers courses on IT and graphic design software.



  • YouTube: A video-sharing platform that offers tutorials on IT and graphic design software.



  • Blogs: Online publications that offer tips, tricks, reviews, and inspiration on IT and graphic design software.



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